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Hard Water Scale is Primarily Calcium and Magnesium, are There Other Kinds of Scale?

 

What is Scale and the Known Types of Scale?

 

Scale is the precipitation of mineral deposits that are caused by soluble salts. The primary agents responsible are the carbonates and sulfates of calcium and magnesium with barium salts, silicate, and phosphate scaling. Mineral scale formation is a considerable issue in domestic, commercial, and industrial applications. The formation of mineral deposits is affected by several factors including supersaturation, temperature, pH, pressure, flow velocity, and the presence of impurities.

 

Different areas and processes, where equipment comes into contact with scaling water either with or without temperature gradient, are being affected by this problem; steam generators, cooling systems, membrane surfaces, and evaporators, just to name a few.

 

The main form of scale and most known to everyone is calcium carbonate, but it is not the only form of scale. Some other common forms of scale are calcium and barium sulfate, magnesium-based scales, silica scales, iron scales, calcium phosphate, and struvite. Please note that calcium sulfate and calcium chloride along with magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride are considered permanent hardness, which do not precipitate out as temperature increases. That being said under extreme circumstances they will percipitate out.

 

When we speak of scale for the most part, we are referring to inorganic scale. Inorganic scale refers to dissolved minerals that are forced out of solution. This causes reaction between incompatible ions and changes the thermodynamic and equilibrium state of the source fluid. Supersaturation and subsequent deposition of the inorganic salts occur.

 

Some important terms to know:

 

Anhydrous - A substance that does not contain any water.

 

Elements - May exist in the native (uncombined) state, in which case their formulas are simply their chemical symbols: gold (Au), carbon (C) in its polymorphic form of diamond, and sulfur (S) are common examples.

 

Hydrothermal - When minerals are chemically precipitated from hot solutions within Earth.

 

Igneous (magmatic) - When minerals crystallize from a melt.

 

Triclinic - Denotes a crystal system or three-dimensional geometrical arrangement having three unequal oblique axes.

 

Sedimentary - When minerals are the result of sedimentation, a process whose raw materials are particles from other rocks that have undergone weathering or erosion.

 

Metamorphic - When new minerals form at the expense of earlier ones owing to the effects of changing -usually increasing - temperature or pressure or both on some existing rock type. 

 

Monoclinic - Denotes a crystal system or three-dimensional geometric arrangement having three unequal axes of which one is at right angles to the other two.

 

Polymorphic - Occurs in different forms. Like calcium carbonate, vaterite, aragonite are all different forms CaCO3.

 

Hardness (H) - The resistance of a mineral to scratching. It is a property by which minerals may be described relative to a standard scale of 10 minerals known as the Mohs scale of hardness. This is not the same as water hardness. See chart below for the Mohs scale of hardness.

 

Mohs Scale of Hardness

Mineral

Mohs Hardness (H)

Observation to Define Mohs scale of hardness

Talc

1

Very easily scratched by the fingernail; has a greasy feel

Gypsum

2

Can be scratched by the fingernail

Calcite

3

Very easily scratched with a knife and scratched with a copper coin

Fluorite

4

Very easily scratched with a knife but not as easily as calcite

Apatite

5

Scratched with a knife with difficulty

Orthoclase

6

Cannot be scratched with a knife, but scratches glass with difficulty

Quartz

7

Scratches glass easily

Topaz

8

Scratches glass very easily

Corundum

9

Cuts glass

Diamond

10

Cuts glass easily (glass cutter)

 

For a comprehensive listing of the various scale types see below.

 

Acmite - NaFeSi2O6 - a Mineral in which the iron is present as Fe3+  and is a green colored version of Aegirine.

 

Aegirine - NaFeSi2O6 - Aegirine is a member of the clinopyroxene group of inosilicate minerals. Aegirine is the sodium endmember of the aegirine-augite series. Aegirine has the chemical formula NaFeSi2O6 in which the iron is present as Fe3+. In the aegirine-augite series, the sodium is variably replaced by calcium with iron (II) and magnesium replacing the iron (III) to balance the charge. Aluminum also substitutes for iron (III).

 

Aluminum Oxy-Hydroxides and Aluminum Oxides - Aluminum hydroxides are found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and it is three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Aluminum hydroxide is amphoteric in nature, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. Closely related are aluminum oxide hydroxide and aluminum oxide or alumina the latter of which is also amphoteric.  

      

  • aluminum oxides
    • corundum (Al2O3)
  • aluminum oxide hydroxides
    • diaspore (α-AlO(OH))
    • boehmite or böhmite (γ-AlO(OH))
    • akdalaite (5Al2O3·H2O) (once believed to be 4Al2O3·H2O), also called tohdite
  • aluminum hydroxides
    • gibbsite (often designated as γ-Al(OH)3, but sometimes as α-Al(OH)3 sometimes called hydrargillite or hydrargyllite)
    • bayerite (designated often as α-Al(OH)3 but sometimes as β-Al(OH)3)
    • doyleite
    • nordstrandite

 

Aluminosilicates - AlxSiyOz - Minerals composed of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen, plus counter-cations. They are a major component of kaolin and other clay minerals.

 

Analcite (Analcime) - NaAlSi2O6·H2O - Analcime or analcite (from the Greek analkimos - "weak") A white, gray, or colorless tectosilicate mineral. Analcime consists of hydrated sodium aluminum silicate in cubic crystalline form. Its chemical formula is NaAlSi2O6·H2O Minor amounts of potassium and calcium substitute for sodium. A silver-bearing synthetic variety also exists (Ag-analcite).   

 

Andalusite - Al2SiO5 - A trimorphic with kyanite and sillimanite, being the lower pressure mid-temperature polymorph. At higher temperatures and pressures, andalusite may convert to sillimanite. Thus, as with its other polymorphs, andalusite is an aluminosilicate index mineral, providing clues to depth and pressures involved in producing the host rock.

 

Anhydrite - CaSO4 - An anhydrous calcium sulfate. It is closely related to gypsum, which has a chemical composition of CaSO4·2H2O. The worldwide abundance of gypsum greatly exceeds the abundance of anhydrite.

 

Aragonite - CaCO3 - A carbonate mineral, one of the three most common naturally occurring crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite). It is formed by biological and physical processes, including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. 

 

Barite - BaSO4 - Also known as Baryte is a mineral composed of barium sulfate. It receives its name from the Greek word "barys" which means "heavy." This name is in response to barite's high specific gravity of 4.5, which is exceptional for a nonmetallic mineral. The high specific gravity of barite makes it suitable for a wide range of industrial, medical, and manufacturing uses. It is commonly used in cement as an aggregate. Barite also serves as the principal ore of barium. 

 

Barium Sulphate - BaSO4 - Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite, which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it.

 

Barium Sulfide - BaS - Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. This colorless salt is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4. Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays.

 

Bassanite - CaSO4· 12H2O - A calcium sulfate mineral with the formula CaSO4· 12H2O or 2CaSO4·H2O. In other words, it has half a water per CaSO4 unit hence its synonym calcium sulfate hemihydrate. It was first described in 1910 as an occurrence on Mount Vesuvius. It was named for Italian paleontologist Francesco Bassani (1853–1916). Vesuvius - CaSO4 · 2H2O - Occurs as alterations from gypsum within leucite tephrite and as fumarole deposits. It occurs in dry lake beds in California and Australia. It also occurs interlayered with gypsum in caves.      

 

Bauxite - The aluminum minerals in bauxite can include: gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite AlO(OH)2 and, diaspore, AlO(OH). It is an amorphous clayey rock that is the chief commercial ore of aluminum. It consists largely of hydrated alumina with variable proportions of iron oxides. There are Carbonate Bauxites called karst bauxite ores and Silicate bauxites called lateritic bauxite.

 

Bayerite - α-Al(OH) - A form of Gibsite - three named structural polymorphs or polytypes: bayerite designated often as  α-Al(OH)  Gibbsite can be monoclinic ortriclinic, while bayerite is monoclinic. Doyleite and nordstrandite are triclinic forms.   

 

Beerstone - CaC2O - A type of scale of known as calcium oxalate in the brewing industry, calcium oxalate is a precipitate. This precipitate is largely due to a reaction between alkaline. cleaners (caustic), hard water minerals (calcium and magnesium) and protein (amino acids). If left unchecked, beerstone can have disastrous consequences for the beer.         

 

Boehmite - AlO(OH)2 - A aluminum oxide hydroxide - AlO(OH) mineral, a component of the aluminum ore bauxite. It is dimorphous with diaspore. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic dipyramidal system and is typically massive in habit. It is white with tints of yellow, green, brown, or red due to impurities.  

 

Brucite - Mg(OH)2 - A magnesium hydroxide mineral that crystallizes in the form of masses, plates, crusts, fibers, botryoidal, and small tabular crystals. It can be seen in a variety of colors such as blue, green, white, yellow, pink, red, and even colorless.

 

Calcite - CaCO3 - A rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of CaCO3. It is extremely common and found throughout the world in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Some geologists consider it to be a "ubiquitous mineral" - one that is found everywhere. Calcite is the principal constituent of limestone and marble. 

 

Calcium Oxalate - CaC2O - Also known as beerstone.  

 

Calcium Sulfate - CaSO4 - The inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ-anhydrite (the anhydrous form), it is used as a desiccant. One particular hydrate is better known as plaster of Paris, and another occurs naturally as the mineral gypsum.  

 

Cancrinite - Na6Ca2[(CO3)2|Al6Si6O24]·2H2O - A rare feldspathoid mineral, an aluminosilicate that contains sodium and calcium carbonate and occurs as an alteration product of nepheline and feldspar in nepheline-syenite and related rocks. It also is found in metamorphic rocks and in contact zones between limestone and igneous intrusive. 

 

Celestite - SrSO4 - Celestine or celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate. The mineral is named for its occasional delicate blue color. Celestine and the carbonate mineral strontianite are the principal sources of the element strontium, commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys. 

 

Corundum - Al2O3 - A crystalline form of aluminum oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium, and chromium. It is a rock-forming mineral. It is also a naturally transparent material but can have different colors depending on the presence of transition metal impurities in its crystalline structure.   

 

Cristobalite - SIO2 - A mineral polymorph of silica that is formed at very high temperatures. It is used in dentistry as a component of alginate impression materials as well as for making models of teeth. It has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.

 

Cuprite - Cu2O - An oxide mineral composed of copper oxide Cu2O and is a minor ore of copper.    

 

Diaspore - α-AlO(OH) - Also known as diasporite, empholite, kayserite, or tanatarite, is an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite. It occurs sometimes as flattened crystals, but usually, as lamellar or scaly masses, the flattened surface being a direction of perfect cleavage on which the luster is markedly pearly in character. It is colorless or greyish-white, yellowish, sometimes violet in color, and varies from translucent to transparent. It may be readily distinguished from other colorless transparent minerals with perfect cleavage and pearly luster—like mica, talc, brucite, and gypsum— by its greater hardness of 6.5 - 7. The specific gravity is 3.4. When heated before the blowpipe it decrepitates violently, breaking up into white pearly scales.  

 

Doyleite - The mineral form of aluminum hydroxide.               

 

Dolomite - CaMg(CO3)2 - Common rock-forming mineral. It is a calcium magnesium carbonate with a chemical composition of CaMg(CO3)2. It is the primary component of the sedimentary rock known as dolostone and the metamorphic rock known as dolomitic marble. Limestone that contains some dolomite is known as dolomitic limestone.

 

Empholite - α-AlO(OH) - Also known as Diaspore.

 

Ferrous Carbonate - FeCO3 - A chemical compound with the formula FeCO3, that occurs naturally as the mineral siderite.At ordinary ambient temperatures, it is a green-brown ionic solid consisting of iron (II) cations Fe2+ and carbonate anions (CO2)3.

 

Ferrous Hydroxide - Fe (OH) - An inorganic compound with the formula Fe (OH)2. It is produced when iron (II) salts, from a compound such as iron (II) sulfate, are treated with hydroxide ions. Iron (II) hydroxide is a white solid, but even traces of oxygen impart a greenish tinge. The air-oxidized solid is sometimes known as "green rust".  

 

Ferrous Sulfide - FeS - One of the family chemical compounds with the approximate formula FeS. Iron sulfides are often iron-deficient non-stoichiometric. All are black, water-insoluble solids.         

 

Fluorite - CaF2 - The mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite.

 

Galena - PbS - Also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead (II) sulfide (PbS). It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. It is often associated with the mineral’s sphalerite, calcite, and fluorite.    

 

Gehlenite - Ca2Al[AlSiO7] - A sorosilicate, Al-rich endmember of the melilite complete solid solution series with akermanite. The type locality is in the Monzoni Mountains, Fassa Valley in Trentino in Italy, and is named after Adolf Ferdinand Gehlen by A.J. Fuchs in 1815.   

 

Gibbsite - Al(OH)3 - One of the mineral forms of aluminum hydroxide. It is often designated as Al(OH)3 (but sometimes as α- Al(OH)₃.[2]). It is also sometimes called hydrargillite (or hydrargyllite). Gibbsite is an important ore of aluminum in that it is one of three main phases that make up the rock bauxite. Gibbsite has three named structural polymorphs or polytypes: bayerite (designated often as α- Al(OH)3[1]:2 but sometimes as β- Al(OH)3, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Gibbsite can be monoclinic or triclinic, while bayerite is monoclinic. Doyleite and nordstrandite are triclinic forms.

 

Gypsum - CaSO4·2H2O - A soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall.   

 

Gyrolite - NaCa16O60(OH)8·14H2O - A rare silicate mineral belonging to the class of phyllosilicates. Gyrolite is also often associated with zeolites. It is most commonly found as spherical or radial formations in hydrothermally altered basalt and basaltic tuffs.

 

Halite - NaCl - Commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral form of sodium chloride. Halite forms isometric crystals.

 

Hematite - Fe2O3 - One of the most abundant minerals on Earth's surface and in the shallow crust. It is an iron oxide with a chemical composition of Fe2O3. It is a common rock-forming mineral found in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks at locations throughou t the world. Hematite is the most important ore of iron. 

 

Hemihydrate - Also known as plaster of paris. 

 

Hydroxyapatite - Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 - Hydroxyapatite, also called hydroxylapatite, is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3, but it is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities. Hydroxyapatite is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. 

 

Hydrargillite - α-Al (OH)3.[2]) - Also known as Diaspore.    

 

Iron Sulfide - FeS - Iron (II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide is one of a family chemical compounds and minerals with the approximate formula FeS. Iron sulfides are often iron-deficient non-stoichiometric. All are black, water-insoluble solids.    

 

Kayserite - α-AlO(OH) - Also known as Diaspore.     

 

Kyanite - Al2SiO5 - Typically a blue aluminosilicate mineral, usually found in aluminum-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. Kyanite in metamorphic rocks generally indicates pressures higher than four kilobars. It is commonly found in quartz.    

 

Lead Sulfide - PbS - Lead sulfide refers to two compounds containing lead and sulfur.    

 

Mackinawite - (FeNi)1 + xS  - An iron-nickel sulfide mineral with formula (FeNi)1 + xS (where x = 0 to 0.11). The mineral crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system and has been described as a distorted, close-packed, cubic array of S atoms with some of the gaps filled with Fe. Mackinawite occurs as opaque bronze to grey-white tabular crystals and anhedral masses. It has a Mohs hardness of 2.5 and a specific gravity of 4.17. It was first described in 1962 for an occurrence in the Mackinaw mine, Snohomish County, Washington for which it was named.

 

Magnesium hydroxide - Mg(OH)2 - The inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It is a white solid with low solubility in water (Ksp = 5.61×10−12). Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia, as well as laxatives.

 

Magnetite - Fe3O4 - A rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4. It is one of the oxides of iron and is ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become a permanent magnet itself. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth.

 

Nordstrandite - Also known as Gibsite.     

 

Noselite - Na8Al6Si6O24(SO4) - Also known as Nosean, is a mineral of the feldspathoid group with the formula: Na8Al6Si6O24(SO4).H2O. It forms isometric crystals of variable color: white, grey, blue, green, to brown. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 to 6 and a specific gravity of 2.3 to 2.4. It is fluorescent. It is found in low-silica igneous rocks. There is a solid solution between Nosean and Hauyne, which contains calcium. It was first described in 1815 from the Rhineland in Germany and named after the German mineralogist K. W. Nose (1753–1835). The mineral is rare but widespread, found in such diverse localities as ocean islands (e.g., Tahiti) and the La Sal Range in Utah.  

 

Pectolite - NaCa2Si3O8 - A white to gray mineral, NaCa2Si3O8, sodium-calcium hydroxide inosilicate. It crystallizes in the triclinic system typically occurring in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses. It has a Mohs hardness of 4.5 to 5 and a specific gravity of 2.7 to 2.9. The gemstone variety, larimar, is a pale to sky blue.

 

Periclase - MgO - A magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact with metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks. It is a cubic form of magnesium oxide. In nature, it usually forms a solid solution with wüstite and is then referred to as ferropericlase or magnesiowüstite.  

 

Phosphates - Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 - In chemistry, phosphate is an anion, salt, functional group, or ester derived from phosphoric acid. It most commonly means orthophosphate, a derivative of orthophosphoric acid H3PO4. The phosphate or orthophosphate ion [PO4]3 is derived from phosphoric acid by the removal of three protons H⁺.

 

Pyrite - FeS2 - The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2. Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral. Pyrite's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool's gold.

 

Quartz - SiO2 - A hard, crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2

 

Serpentine - (Mg,Fe,Ni,Al,Zn,Mn)2-3 (Si,Al,Fe)2O5(OH)4 - The serpentine subgroup are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks. They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, and as a decorative stone. The name is thought to come from the greenish color being that of a serpent.

 

Sillimanite - Al2SiO5 -An aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. Sillimanite is named after the American chemist Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864). It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Chester, US.

 

Siderite - FeCO3 - The mineral name for Ferrous Carbonate. 

 

Silicates - Me (SinOx) · yH2O - Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and makeup approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica SiO2 is usually considered a silicate mineral.    

 

Silica - SiO2 - An oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO₂, most found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand.

 

Silica Amorphous - SiO2 - An inorganic material commonly used in semiconductor circuits to isolate different conducting regions. Due to its mechanical resistance, high dielectric strength, and selectivity for chemical modification, amorphous silica has also become a key material in microelectronics and chromatography.       

 

Sphaerite - (Zn,Fe)S - A zinc sulfide mineral with a chemical composition of (Zn,Fe)S. It is found in metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks in many parts of the world. Sphalerite is the most commonly encountered zinc mineral and the world's most important ore of zinc.

 

Struvite - NH4MgPO4·6H2O - A phosphate mineral with the formula: NH4MgPO4·6H2O. Struvite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system as white to yellowish or brownish-white pyramidal crystals or in platy mica-like forms. It is a soft mineral with Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2 and has a low specific gravity of 1.7.

 

Tantarite - α-AlO(OH -) - Also known as Diaspore.    

 

Tenorite - Cu - A black massive mineral found in the oxidized portions of copper deposits where it is associated with other secondary minerals such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, goethite and hematite. It usually forms because of the weathering of copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite.

 

Thenardite - Na2SO- An anhydrous sodium sulfate mineral, Na2SO4 which occurs in arid evaporite environments, specifically lakes and playas. It also occurs in dry caves and old mine workings as an efflorescence and as a crusty sublimate deposit around fumaroles. It occurs in volcanic caves on Mount Etna, Italy.

 

Trevorite - NiFe³⁺2O4 - A rare nickel-iron oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. It has the chemical formula NiFe³⁺2O4. It is a black mineral with the typical spinel properties of crystallizing in the cubic system, black-streaked, infusible, and insoluble in most acids.

 

Vaterite - CaCO3 -  A rare calcium mineral, a polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It was named after the German mineralogist Heinrich Vater. It is also known as mu-calcium carbonate (μ- CaCO3) and has a JCPDS number of 13-192. Vaterite belongs to the hexagonal crystal system, whereas calcite is trigonal, and aragonite is orthorhombic. 

 

Vivianite - (Fe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2·8H2O) - A hydrated iron phosphate mineral found in a number of geological environments. Small amounts of manganese Mn2+, magnesium Mg and calcium Ca substitute for iron Fe2+ in the structure. Pure vivianite is colorless, but the mineral oxidizes very easily, changing the color, and it is usually found as deep blue to deep bluish green prismatic to flattened crystals.  Vivianite crystals are often found inside fossil shells, such as those of bivalves and gastropods, or attached to fossil bone. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1817, the year of his death, after either John Henry Vivian (1785–1855), a Welsh-Cornish politician, mine owner and mineralogist living in Truro, Cornwall, England, or after Jeffrey G. Vivian, an English mineralogist. Vivianite was discovered at Wheal Kind, in St Agnes, Cornwall.

 

Wallastonite - CaSiO3 - A calcium inosilicate mineral that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. It is usually white. 

 

Xonotlite - Ca6Si6O17(OH) - Crystallizes in the monoclinic prismatic crystal system with typically an acicular crystal form or habit. It can be colorless, gray, light gray, lemon white, or pink. It is transparent with a vitreous to silky luster. It leaves a white streak. Xonotlite is rated 6.5 on the Mohs scale of hardness. It was first described in 1866 and named for its occurrence in Tetela de Xonotla, Puebla, Mexico. It occurs as veins in serpentinite and contact metamorphism aureoles. 

 

Zinc Sulfide - ZnS - An inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS. This is the main form of zinc found in nature, where it mainly occurs as the mineral sphalerite. Although this mineral is usually black because of various impurities, the pure material is white, and it is widely used as a pigment.

 

Is There An Effective Way To Deal With Scale Without Using Chemicals?

 

Yes, Hydropath technology that powers the HydroFLOW devices which are highly efficient, non-intrusive electronic descalers that are installed on the water pipe entering your home or business. It treats fluids by inducing a robust yet harmless signal of 150kHz throughout plumbing systems made of any material, including PEX and PVC.

 

These electric waves cause mineral ions to form suspended clusters that turn into stable crystals when temperature or pressure changes occur. The suspended crystals will prevent scale from building up in pipes and on heating elements, thus increasing heat transfer efficiency, lowering maintenance costs and reducing chemical usage. Standard applications include plumbing systems, heat exchangers, water heaters, boilers, cooling towers, belt filter presses, wells and pumps. Popular sectors include residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural.

 

Unlike other products that treat liquids at a single point in a system and whose impact starts to diminish immediately after that point, HydroFLOW provides continuous water conditioning - ensuring a consistent and ongoing effect. Also, due to its unique, non-intrusive design, HydroFLOW doesn’t add any chemicals to your water supply while inhibiting pipe corrosion and eradicating bacteria and algae.